Dentists in Poland Posts

Author: Dentists in Poland

Public Holidays in Poland

In Poland there are thirteen Public holidays each year (holidays which are legally considered to be non-working days); however there are many other special days in the calendar – in fact it seems that everyone has their own special day at times – ranging from Police Day to Dog’s Day.

In this post, we list Public holidays. For a full list – follow this link

Note that Catholic religious holidays are widely observed in Poland. Stores, malls, and restaurants are likely to be closed or have very limited business hours on Easter, All Saints Day, Christmas Eve and Christmas.

If you are considering coming to Poland for dental treatment during public holidays, please check with your dental clinic whether they will be open for business on these days.

New Year’s Day

New Year’s Day, also simply called New Year or New Year’s, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year.

Epiphany

Epiphany, commonly known as Three Kings’ Day is on January 6. It celebrates the three wise men’s visit to baby Jesus and also remembers his baptism, according to the Christian Bible’s events.

Easter

Easter (Wielkanoc, Niedziela Wielkanocna), a moveable feast that happens in March or April. Like Christmas, it is primarily a meaningful Christian holiday. On the Saturday before Easter, churches offer special services in anticipation of the holiday, including blessing of food; children especially like to attend these services, bringing small baskets of painted eggs and candy to be blessed. On Easter Sunday itself, practicing Catholics go to the morning mass, followed by a celebratory breakfast made of foods blessed the day before. On Easter Sunday, shops, malls, and restaurants are commonly closed.

Lany Poniedziałek, or Śmigus Dyngus

Lany Poniedziałek, or Śmigus Dyngus, is the Monday after Easter, and also a holiday. It’s the day of an old tradition with pagan roots: groups of kids and teens wandering around, looking to soak each other with water. Often groups of boys will try to catch groups of girls, and vice versa; but innocent passers-by are not exempt from the game, and are expected to play along. Common ‘weapons’ include water guns and water balloons, but children, especially outdoors and in the countryside, like to use buckets and have no mercy on passers-by.

May Day

May 1st – This holiday is officially called State Holiday (Święto Państwowe). However, it is unofficially called Labor Day, and coincides with International Workers’ Day. It is also EU Accession Day marking the 2004 accession of Poland as a member of the European Union.

Constitution Day

Constitution Day falls on May 3rd, in remembrance of the Constitution of May 3rd, 1791. The document itself was a highly progressive attempt at political reform, and it was Europe’s first constitution (and world’s second, after the US). Following the partitions, the original Constitution became a highly poignant symbol of national identity and ideals. Today, May 3rd is a national holiday, often combined with the May 1 (Labor Day) into a larger celebration.

Pentecost

7th Sunday after Easter. As this holiday always falls on a Sunday, it is not widely known that it is considered a non-working day.

Corpus Christi

9th Thursday after Easter. This is a Catholic church Holiday.

Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary

August 15 – This is also Polish Armed Forces Day (Święto Wojska Polskiego), celebrating the battle of Warsaw in 1920.

All Saints Day

All Saints Day (Wszystkich Świętych), 1st of November. In the afternoon and evening, people visit graves of their relatives and light candles. After dusk cemeteries glow with thousands of lights and offer a very picturesque scene. If you have the chance, be sure to visit a cemetery to witness the holiday. Many restaurants, malls, and stores will either be closed or close earlier than usual on this holiday.

National Independence Day

National Independence Day (Narodowe Święto Niepodległości) is a public holiday celebrated every year on 11 November to commemorate Poland’s independence in 1918, after 123 years of partitions and occupation by Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. As with most other holidays, many businesses will be closed on this day.

Christmas Day

December 25

Second Day of Christmas

December 26

Dental extractions

Reasons for dental extractions

There are many reasons why dental extractions are necessary, the main ones being tooth damage, due to breakage or decay especially when they are associated with toothache. Dental extractions are also referred to as exodontia or exodontics.

Sometimes wisdom teeth are impacted (stuck and unable to grow normally into the mouth) and may cause recurrent infections of the gum (pericoronitis). In orthodontics if the teeth are crowded, sound teeth may be extracted (often bicuspids) to create space so the rest of the teeth can be straightened.

Procedure

Tooth extraction is usually relatively straightforward, and the vast majority can be usually performed quickly while the individual is awake by using local anesthetic injections to eliminate pain. While local anesthetic blocks pain, mechanical forces are still felt. Some teeth are more difficult to remove for several reasons, especially related to the tooth’s position, the shape of the tooth roots, and the integrity of the tooth.

Dental fear

Dental phobia is an issue for some individuals, and tooth extraction tends to be feared more than other dental treatments such as fillings. If a tooth is buried in the bone, a surgical or trans alveolar approach may be required, which involves cutting the gum away and removing the bone which is holding the tooth in with a surgical drill. After the tooth is removed, stitches are used to replace the gum into the normal position.

Post extraction

Immediately after the tooth is removed, a bite pack is used to apply pressure to the tooth socket and stop the bleeding. After a tooth extraction, dentists usually give advice which revolves around not disturbing the blood clot in the socket by not touching the area with a finger or the tongue, by avoiding vigorous rinsing of the mouth, and avoiding strenuous activity.

Sucking, such as through a straw, is to be avoided. If the blood clot is dislodged, bleeding can restart, or alveolar osteitis (“dry socket”) can develop, which can be very painful and lead to delayed healing of the socket. Smoking is avoided for at least 24 hours as it impairs wound healing and makes dry socket significantly more likely. Most advise hot salt water mouth baths which start 24 hours after the extraction.

Other reasons

  • Severe tooth decay or infection – (acute or chronic alveolar abscess, such as periapical abscess – collection of infected material (pus) forming at the tip of the root of a tooth.). Despite the reduction in worldwide prevalence of dental caries, it is still the most common reason for extraction of (non-third molar) teeth, accounting for up to two thirds of extractions
  • Severe gum disease – which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth
  • Treatment of symptomatic impacted wisdom teeth – who have or cause certain diseases such as nonrestorable caries or cysts
  • Preventive/prophylactic removal – of asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth
  • Supernumerary teeth – which are blocking other teeth from coming in
  • Supplementary or malformed teeth
  • Fractured teeth
  • Cosmetic – to remove teeth of poor appearance, unsuitable for restoration
  • In preparation for orthodontic treatment – (braces)
  • Teeth which cannot be restored endodontically
  • Prosthetics – teeth detrimental to the fit or appearance of dentures
  • Lower cost – compared to other treatments

Types of extraction

  • Simple extractions – are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually with the patient under local anaesthetic, and require only the use of instruments to elevate and/or grasp the visible portion of the tooth. Typically the tooth is lifted using an elevator, and using dental forceps, rocked back and forth until the periodontal ligament has been sufficiently broken and the supporting alveolar bone has been adequately widened to make the tooth loose enough to remove. Typically, when teeth are removed with forceps, slow, steady pressure is applied with controlled force.
  • Surgical extractions – involve the removal of teeth that cannot be easily accessed, for example because they have broken under the gum line or because they have not erupted fully. Surgical extractions almost always require an incision. In a surgical extraction the doctor may elevate the soft tissues covering the tooth and bone, and may also remove some of the overlying and/or surrounding jawbone tissue with a drill or osteotome. Frequently, the tooth may be split into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal.

Replacement options for missing teeth

Following dental extraction, a gap is left. There are various options to fill this gap including a bridge, implant or dentures.

Dental extractions in Poland

The cost of extractions in Poland are much less than in the UK. Typically, an extraction will cost £30 in Poland compared to £125 in the UK. Surgical extractions can cost as little as £65 compared to £295 (UK).


Malbork Castle

Past home of The Teutonic Order

Malbork is a town in northern Poland which is popular because of the medieval Malbork Castle founded in the 13th century by the Knights of the Teutonic Order.

Largest Gothic fortress in Europe

The Teutonic Order was founded around the year 1190 in Palestine to crusade against the Muslims and pagans. In the early 14th century the Teutonic Knights moved their capital from Venice to Malbork on the Nogat River, which is now in northern Poland. The most significant trace of the their presence in the town is the imposing red brick castle from 1274 on the river bank, and it is the largest Gothic fortress in Europe.

Under continuous construction for nearly 230 years, the Malbork Castle complex is actually three castles nested in one another. A classic example of a medieval fortress, it is the world’s largest brick castle and one of the most impressive of its kind in Europe.

World War II

The castle was in the process of being restored when World War II broke out. During the war, the castle was over 50% destroyed. Restoration has been ongoing since the war. However, the main cathedral in the castle, fully restored just prior to the war and destroyed during the war, remains in its ruined state. The castle and its museum are listed as UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites.

Third Reich

With the rise of Adolf Hitler to power in the early 1930s the Nazis began using the site for annual pilgrimages by both the Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls. It was the Teutonic Castle at Marienburg, Malbork that served as the blue print for the Order Castles of the Third Reich.

Defensive Walls

Malbork Castle is encircled by defensive walls with gates and towers. The Grand Master’s palace is believed to be the top achievement of the late-Gothic style. The representative summer refectory is the most attractive chamber in the castle interiors.

Useful links

The Malbork Castle Museum

Unesco

Dental tourism

Malbork castle is only 62 km from Gdansk where many high quality dental clinics are located. The easiest way to get to Malbork Castle from Gdansk is by train. From Gdansk Glowny, the main train station in Gdansk, it can take between 28 and 55 minutes to get to Malbork Castle, depending upon the type of train you choose.


What is a dental bridge?

Dental bridge in Poland

This article is short and below you will see how long it will take to read it.

Time needed: 5 minutes.

If you have missing teeth, your dentist can close or bridge the gaps in your smile with a dental bridge. This treatment is widely available in Poland and much cheaper than in the UK.

  1. What is a dental bridge?

    A bridge is a fixed dental restoration (a fixed dental prosthesis) used to replace one or more missing teeth by joining an artificial tooth definitively to adjacent teeth or dental implants. It will literally bridge the gap created by one or more missing teeth.

    Dental bridge

  2. What types of dental bridges are there?

    There are four main types of dental bridges, traditional (or conventional), cantilever, Maryland & implant-supported.

  3. What is a traditional bridge?

    A traditional bridge is the most popular type of dental bridge and can be used when you have natural teeth on both sides of the gap created by your missing tooth. If you have a natural tooth on each side of the gap caused by the missing tooth or teeth, then a cantilever or Maryland bridge may be used.

  4. What is an Implant-supported dental bridge?

    Implant-supported bridges use dental implants instead of crowns or frameworks. Typically, one implant is surgically placed for every missing tooth, and these implants hold the bridge in position.

  5. Why do I need a dental bridge?

    When you have a missing tooth or missing teeth, a bridge can benefit you in many ways e.g. it can restore your smile, correct your speech, help you to chew properly & maintain the shape of your face.

  6. How Long do Dental Bridges Last?

    With good oral hygiene and regular checkups, it is not unusual for the life span of a fixed bridge to be over 10 years. Poor oral hygiene could reduce this to between 2 and 5 years.

  7. How much do dental bridges cost in Poland?

    A traditional bridge in Poland will cost around £320 on average. In the UK, the typical price is around £700.



Dental treatment in Poland

If you are considering coming to Poland for dental treatment, please read our article – How to use this website?


What is a dental crown?

Crowns, Inlays & Onlays

This article is short and below you will see how long it will take to read it.

Time needed: 5 minutes.

If you are having dental treatment, you’ll probably going to hear your dentist talk about a crown or dental cap. But, what is a dental crown, how does it work & what will it cost? These are all questions we will deal with in this article.

  1. What is a dental crown?

    A crown, sometimes known as dental cap, is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant.

    Dental crown

  2. Why is a dental crown needed?

    Crowns are often needed when a large cavity threatens the ongoing health of a tooth. Crowns are often used to improve the strength or appearance of teeth. While inarguably beneficial to dental health, the procedure and materials can be relatively expensive.

  3. How are dental crowns made?

    The most common method of crowning a tooth involves using a dental impression of a prepared tooth by a dentist to fabricate the crown outside of the mouth. The crown can then be inserted at a subsequent dental appointment. Using this indirect method of tooth restoration allows use of strong restorative materials requiring time-consuming fabrication methods requiring intense heat, such as casting metal or firing porcelain which would not be possible to complete inside the mouth.

    Dental crown

  4. What are the reasons why I need a dental crown?

    There are many reasons:
    Replace existing crowns which have failed
    Restore the form, function and appearance of badly broken down, worn or fractured teeth, where other simpler forms of restorations are unsuitable or have been found to fail clinically.
    Improve the aesthetics of unsightly teeth which cannot be managed by simpler cosmetic and restorative procedures.
    Maintain the structural stability and reduce the risk of fractures of extensively restored teeth including those which have been endodontically treated.
    Restore the visible portion of a single dental implant

  5. What are dental crowns made from?

    Crowns are either made from metal, ceramic or a mix of both. As the name suggests, full metal crowns are entirely cast in a metal alloy. There are a multitude of alloys available and the selection of a particular alloy over another depends on several factors including cost, handling, physical properties & biocompatibility. Dental ceramics or porcelains are used primarily for their aesthetic properties compared to metal restorations. These materials are generally quite brittle and prone to fracture.

  6. How much do dental crowns cost in Poland?

    A crown or onlay in Poland will cost from £300 on average compared to £795 in the UK.

  7. What is an inlay or onlay?

    Inlays and onlays are used in molars or premolars, when the tooth has experienced too much damage to support a basic filling, but not so much damage that a crown is necessary. The key comparison between them is the amount and part of the tooth that they cover. An inlay will incorporate the pits and fissures of a tooth, mainly encompassing the chewing surface between the cusps. An onlay will involve one or more cusps being covered. If all cusps and the entire surface of the tooth is covered this is then known as a crown.

  8. How many treatments are required for a dental crown?

    Usually, two treatments are required because crowns are usually manufactured in a laboratory; however it is possible to have this treatment in just one visit to the dentist using CAD-CAM.

  9. What is CAD-CAM?

    CAD-CAM (aka Computer Aided Design-Computer Aided Manufacture) is a fabrication method which aids the production of dental restorations e.g. crowns, bridges, inlays and onlays. It is possible for these indirect restorations to be provided in one visit.

Dental treatment in Poland

If you are considering coming to Poland for dental treatment, please read our article – How to use this website?


Top 10 tourist attractions in Poland

Where to go, what to see!

This article – Top 10 tourist attractions in Poland – is medium in size and below you will see how long it will take to read it.

Time needed: 12 minutes.

From Poland’s lake district Masuria with over 2,000 lakes to true wilderness areas like The Bialowieza Forest to the stunning Tatra Mountains – you will find that Poland has something to offer every visitor.  Here’s our Top 10 recommended tourist attractions in Poland:

  1. Auschwitz

    It is widely agreed that everyone should visit Auschwitz at least once in their lives, it is a stern reminder of the horrors that human beings can inflict on each other and for some people, a life-changing experience. Auschwitz was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated in occupied Poland by Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Auschwitz is the German name for Oświęcim, the town the camps were located in and around; it was renamed by the Germans after they invaded Poland in September 1939 – Further information

    Auschwitz

  2. Wieliczka Salt Mine

    The Wieliczka Salt Mine, located in the town of Wieliczka in southern Poland, lies within the Krakow metropolitan area. The mine continuously produced table salt from the 13th century until 2007 as one of the world’s oldest operating salt mines. The mine’s attractions for tourists include dozens of statues and an entire chapel that have been carved out of the rock salt by the miners. About 1.2 million persons visit the Wieliczka Salt Mine annually – Further information

    Wieliczka Salt Mine

  3. Zakopane

    Zakopane is a town in southern Poland. The location is informally known as “the Winter Capital of Poland,” and lies in the southern part of the Podhale region at the foot of the Tatra Mountains, the only alpine mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. It is the most important Polish center of mountaineering and skiing, and is visited annually by some three million tourists – Further information

    Zakopane

  4. Tricity

    Tricity (also Tri-City) is an urban area consisting of three Polish cities: Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot. They are situated adjacent to one other, in a row, on the coast of the Gdańsk Bay, Baltic Sea, in Eastern Pomerania, northern Poland. There’s plenty to do around Tricity, there are lots of tourist attractions and a lively nightlife scene not to mention all the fun of the seaside! Either enjoy sunbathing or take part in any of the many watersport activities on offer. From theatre to Rock concerts to quality restaurants, its all available in the Tricity area – Further information

    Beach holidays

  5. Tatra Mountains

    The Tatras are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. Although considerably smaller than the Alps, they are classified as having an alpine landscape. Their high mountain character, combined with great accessibility, makes them popular with tourists and scientists. The area is a well-known winter sports area and includes the resort of Zakopane, the “Winter Capital” of Poland – Further information

    Tatra Mountains

  6. Czestochowa

    Czestochowa is a city in south Poland on the Warta River. It lies among the picturesque Jurassic rocks of Krakow Czestochowa Upland, topped with the ruins of Medieval castles. The town is known for the famous Pauline monastery of Jasna Góra that is the home of the Black Madonna painting, a shrine to the Virgin Mary. Every year, millions of pilgrims from all over the world come to Częstochowa to see it – Further information

    Black Madonna

  7. Masuria

    Masuria is an area in northeastern Poland famous today for its many thousands of lakes. Today, the region’s economy relies largely on eco-tourism and agriculture. The lakes offer varieties of water sports such as sailing and holiday activities. The whole area has become a prime destination for yachtspeople and canoeists, and is also popular among anglers, hikers, bikers and nature-lovers – Further information

    Masuria

  8. Kashubia

    Kashubia is a lake district in North Poland. It is surrounded by many hills made by Scandinavian glaciers. Among larger cities, Gdynia contains the largest proportion of people declaring Kashubian origin. However, the biggest city of the Kashubia region is Gdańsk, the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and the traditional capital of Kashubia – Further information

    Kashubia

  9. Bieszczady Mountains

    The Bieszczady Mountains are pleasantly devoid of the trappings of mass tourism and offer visitors the opportunity to discover the, ‘Wild East’ without venturing into Ukraine or the Soviet Union. The scenery in the region is wild and rugged and includes flora such as the Dacian Violet, Carpathian Beech and the Hungarian Violet, all species which cannot be seen further West. The wildlife in the area include bears, lynx, beavers, wolves, European bison and red mountain deer – Further information

    Bieszczady Mountains

  10. Wolf’s Lair

    Wolf’s Lair in Poland is the standard English name for Wolfsschanze, Adolf Hitler’s first World War II Eastern Front military headquarters, one of several Führerhauptquartier (Führer Headquarters) or FHQs located in various parts of Europe. The complex was blown up and abandoned on 25 January 1945, but many of the bunkers were so thick that their damaged walls and ceilings remain – Further information

    Wolf's Lair


Dental restoration

Dental fillings in Poland

A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting from caries or external trauma as well as to the replacement of such structure supported by dental implants. This treatment is widely available in Poland.

Direct & Indirect

They are of two broad types; direct and indirect and these are further classified by location and size. A root canal filling, for example, is a restorative technique used to fill the space where the dental pulp normally resides.

Tooth preparation

Restoring a tooth to good form and function requires two steps:

  1. preparing the tooth for placement of restorative material or materials
  2. placement of these materials

The process of preparation usually involves cutting the tooth with a rotary dental handpiece and dental burrs or a dental laser. This is to make space for the planned restorative materials and to remove any dental decay or portions of the tooth that are structurally unsound. If permanent restoration cannot be carried out immediately after tooth preparation, temporary restoration may be performed.

In preparing a tooth for a restoration, a number of considerations will determine the type and extent of the preparation. The most important factor to consider is decay. For the most part, the extent of the decay will define the extent of the preparation, and in turn, the subsequent method and appropriate materials for restoration.

Direct restorations

This technique involves placing a soft or malleable filling into the prepared tooth and building up the tooth. The material is then set hard and the tooth is restored. The advantage of direct restorations is that they usually set quickly and can be placed in a single procedure. The dentist has a variety of different filling options to choose from. A decision is usually made based on the location and severity of the associated cavity. Since the material is required to set while in contact with the tooth, limited energy (heat) is passed to the tooth from the setting process.

Indirect restorations

In this technique the restoration is fabricated outside of the mouth using the dental impressions of the prepared tooth. Common indirect restorations include inlays and onlays, crowns, bridges, and veneers. Usually a dental technician fabricates the indirect restoration from records the dentist has provided. The finished restoration is usually bonded permanently with a dental cement. It is often done in two separate visits to the dentist. Common indirect restorations are done using gold or ceramics.

While the indirect restoration is being prepared, a provisory/temporary restoration is sometimes used to cover the prepared tooth to help maintain the surrounding dental tissues.

Removable dental prostheses (mainly dentures) are sometimes considered a form of indirect dental restoration, as they are made to replace missing teeth.

Restoration using dental implants

Dental implants are anchors placed in bone, usually made from titanium or titanium alloy. They can support dental restorations which replace missing teeth. Some restorative applications include supporting crowns, bridges, or dental prostheses.


FAQs about Dental Restorations

What is Restorative dentistry?

Restorative dentistry is the study of, diagnosis of and management of diseases of the teeth and their supporting structures. It includes the rehabilitation of the dentition to the functional and aesthetic requirements of the patient e.g. replacing of missing or damaged teeth. Fillings, crowns, bridges and implants are common restorative solutions. The aim is to bring back your natural smile and prevent future oral health issues.

How much do fillings cost in Poland?

White fillings cost around £50 with high aesthetic fillings costing from £140. This is much cheaper than the UK (50-70%).


How to use this website?

Time needed: 2 hours.

The Dentists in Poland directory has been designed to make dental tourism to Poland as easy as possible. These are the suggested steps about how to use this website.

  1. Compare the costs

    Once you have a cost for your dental treatment in the UK, research the cost of this treatment in Poland – you will find a handy guide on our Price comparisons page. If you can make a significant saving (usually 50% – 70%), proceed to the step 2.

  2. Decide where you would like to visit in Poland

    At Dentists in Poland, we focus on matching patients with the best dentists and dental clinics within the major cities in Poland. We currently help dental patients from the UK to find treatments in WarsawKrakowGdańsk & Wrocław; however we will be expanding into other cities soon. These 4 cities are the most popular destinations for dental tourism in Poland. You will find lots of tourist information within our Discover Poland section.

  3. Use our website to find out how long your dental treatment will take

    Some treatments require more than one visit to the dentist. You will find this information on our Dental treatment page.

  4. Check the costs of flights and accommodation for your visit

    You will find information about flying to Poland on this page – Fly to Poland – Airlines and airports. Most of Europe’s major airlines fly to and from Poland. Poland’s national carrier is LOT and there are a number of budget airlines that fly to Poland including WizzAirEasyJetEurowings, Norwegian and Ryanair. Some dental clinics provide accommodation as part of a package so it is worthwhile spending time looking through our directory – you may find a good deal!

  5. Find a dentist

    Use our directory to find your dentist. We have made this easy for you by listing the Top 20 in each location and making sure that they speak English and provide information in English via their websites or via a page on this website. Make a shortlist and contact each one directly to discuss your treatment.

  6. Book your treatment, flights & accommodation

    Remember that if you are staying in Poland for a few days, you may wish to explore the country between treatments.

Dentures

Dentures in Poland

Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth, and are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.

The cost of dentures in Poland is less than in the UK, however because it will involve a few visits to the dentist, it might not make financial sense to come to Poland for treatment unless you plan to holiday here for a couple of weeks or make a few visits.

Conventional dentures are removable (removable partial denture or complete denture). However, there are many denture designs, some which rely on bonding or clasping onto teeth or dental implants (fixed prosthodontics).

There are two main categories of dentures, the distinction being whether they are used to replace missing teeth on the mandibular arch or on the maxillary arch.

Medical uses

Dentures do not feel like real teeth, nor do they function like real teeth, however there are some benefits:

  • Mastication or chewing ability is improved by replacing edentulous (without teeth) areas with denture teeth.
  • Aesthetics, because the presence of teeth gives a natural appearance to the face, and wearing a denture to replace missing teeth provides support for the lips and cheeks and corrects the collapsed appearance that results from the loss of teeth.
  • Pronunciation, because replacing missing teeth, especially the anteriors, enables patients to speak better. There is especially improvement in pronouncing words containing sibilants or fricatives.
  • Self-esteem, because improved looks and speech boost confidence in the ability to interact socially.

Tooth loss

People can become entirely edentulous for many reasons, the most prevalent being removal due to dental disease, which typically relates to oral flora control, i.e., periodontal disease and tooth decay. Other reasons include pregnancy, tooth developmental defects caused by severe malnutrition, genetic defects such as dentinogenesis imperfecta, trauma, or drug use.

Types

Removable partial – are for patients who are missing some of their teeth on a particular arch. Fixed partial dentures, also known as “crown and bridge” dentures, are made from crowns that are fitted on the remaining teeth. They act as abutments and pontics and are made from materials resembling the missing teeth. Fixed bridges are more expensive than removable appliances but are more stable.

Complete – are worn by patients who are missing all of the teeth in a single arch—i.e., the maxillary (upper) or mandibular (lower) arch—or, more commonly, in both arches.

Copy dentures – Can be made for either partial but mainly complete denture patients. These dentures require fewer visits to make and usually are made for older patients, patients who would have difficulty adjusting to new dentures, would like a spare pair of dentures or like the aesthetics of their dentures already. This requires taking an impression of the patients current denture and remaking them.

Materials

False teeth are mainly made from acrylic due to the ease of material manipulation and likeness to intra-oral tissues, ie. gums. Most are fabricated from heat-cured acrylic polymethyl methacrylate and rubber-reinforced polymethyl methacrylate.

Coloring agents and synthetic fibers are added to obtain the tissue-like shade, and to mimic the small capillaries of the oral mucosa, respectively.

However, dentures made from acrylic can be fragile and fracture easily if the patient has trouble adapting neuromuscular control. This can be overcome by reinforcing the denture base with cobalt chromium (Co-Cr). They are often thinner (therefore more comfortable) and stronger (to prevent repeating fractures).

How much do dentures cost in Poland?

Full Dentures (per arch) cost from around £250.


Things to do in Krakow

Anyone who has spent even a few days in Krakow, Poland knows how much the city has to offer. Many tourists leave the city with the majority of her treasures left undiscovered. There simply isn’t enough time to cover them all. If you are in Krakow for a limited time, then below you will find our recommendations for things to do in Krakow and places that you should visit.

Ideas

  • Walk the entire Royal Way, from St. Florian’s Gate, down Florianska, across the Rynek Glowny, down Grodzka to the Wawel castle.
  • Listen to the Hejnal Mariacki (Trumpet Signal) while sipping a coffee in the Rynek Glowny. The signal is played live every full hour and is cut suddenly in memory of a trumpeter shot and killed by a Tatar arrow in 1241.
  • Walk around the Planty, a large park that surrounds the entire Old Town.
  • At Wawel Castle, lounge and take in the sun on the banks of the Vistula river, or take a cruise down the river. See the Dragon’s Lair and see the dragon breathe fire.
  • Early on Sunday, go shopping at the open air flea markets at Plac Nowy and Hala Targowa.
  • See a bit of Unesco World Heritage and do Auschwitz and Salt mine tours.

Town Hall Tower

Town Hall Tower is one of the main focal points of the Main Market Square in the Old Town district of Krakow. The Tower is the only remaining part of the old Town Hall demolished in 1820 as part of the city plan to open up the Main Square. Its cellars once housed a city prison with a Medieval torture chamber. Built of stone and brick at the end of the 13th century, the massive Gothic tower of the early Town Hall stands 70 meters tall and leans just 55 centimeters, the result of a wind storm in 1703. The top floor of the tower with an observation deck is open to visitors.

Churches of Krakow

The metropolitan city of Krakow, former capital of Poland, is known as the city of churches. The abundance of landmark, historic Roman Catholic churches along with the plenitude of monasteries and convents earned the city a countrywide reputation as the “Northern Rome” in the past. The churches of Krakow comprise over 120 Roman Catholic places of worship, of which over 60 were built in the 20th century. They remain the centers of religious life for the local population and are attended regularly.

Krakow Barbican

The Krakow Barbican is a fortified outpost and gateway leading into Krakow’s Old Town. It is one of the few remaining relics of the complex network of fortifications and defensive barriers that once encircled the city. It currently serves as a tourist attraction and venue for many multidisciplinary exhibitions. Based on Arabic rather than European defensive architecture, this masterpiece of medieval military engineering, with its circular fortress, was added to the city’s fortifications along the coronation route in the late 15th century.

Church of St. Casimir the Prince

The Church of St. Casimir the Prince with the adjacent Franciscan monastery and the catacombs is located at ul. Reformacka 4 in the Old Town district (Stare Miasto). Members of the Catholic Order of Franciscans known as “Little Brothers” arrived in Krakow in 1622 and settled at the outskirts of the town in Garbary (1625). Their church was completed in 1640 thanks to a donation from Zuzanna Amendówna, bequeathed around 1644 along with the miracle painting of Madonna displayed today at the side altar of the new church.

Krakow Old Town

Krakow Old Town is the central, historic district of Krakow, Poland. It is the most prominent example of an Old Town in the country, because for many centuries, Krakow was the royal capital of Poland, until Sigismund III Vasa relocated the court to Warsaw in 1596. Krakow’s historic center was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1978. Medieval Krakow was surrounded by a 1.9 mile (3 km) defensive wall complete with 46 towers and seven main entrances leading through them. The fortifications around the Old Town were erected over the course of two centuries. Today the Old Town attracts visitors from all over the World and should definitely be on your things to do in Krakow list.

Sukiennice

The Renaissance Sukiennice (Cloth Hall, Drapers’ Hall) in Krakow is one of the city’s most recognisable icons. It was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, Sukiennice was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the East – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Krakow itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine. The Hall has hosted countless distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries.

Main Market Square

The Main Market Square in Krakow is the main square of the Old Town and a principal urban space located at the center of the city. It dates back to the 13th century and at roughly 40,000sq m (430,000sq ft) it is the largest medieval town square in Europe. The center of the square is dominated by the cloth hall Sukiennice, rebuilt in 1555 in the Renaissance style, topped by a beautiful attic or Polish parapet decorated with carved masks.

Royal Road

The Royal Road or Royal Route in Krakow begins at the northern end of the medieval Old Town and continues south through the center of town towards the Wawel Hill, where the old kings’ residence, the Wawel Castle is located. The Royal Road passes some of the most prominent historic landmarks of Poland’s royal capital, providing suitable background to coronation processions and parades, the kings’ and princes’ receptions, foreign envoys and guests of distinction traveling from a far country to their destination at Wawel. The Royal Road starts outside the northern flank of the old city walls in the medieval suburb of Kleparz, now a central district of Krakow.